Elevator Data

Introduction

You can access Elevator Data by selecting Edit, Elevator Data, or by pressing the  button on the Toolbar.

The Elevator Data dialog contains information about the elevators.  There are two modes:

Standard

This provides a quick and easy way to enter data, which is sufficiently detailed for most cases.  If you use any Select options, Elevate will run in sequence a separate analysis for each possible configuration.  If you use only Specified options, Elevate will run a single analysis.

Advanced

This mode can only be used when the Analysis type is Simulation.  Parameters are specified individually for each elevator, so in the same group, elevators can have different speeds, capacities, etc.  Elevate runs a single simulation in Advanced mode.

You can change between the modes by clicking on the radio buttons labelled Standard and Advanced.  All the variables are discussed in the following sections.  Your selection of Measurement System in Analysis Data will determine whether Elevate asks for data in Metric or U.S. units.  Metric units will be assumed for discussion in this chapter.

STANDARD MODE


Figure 6   Elevator Data dialog, Standard Mode


Number of Elevators

The number of elevators in the group.  This can be Selected over a range, or Specified to be an exact number. Elevate will analyse of a group of up to 12 elevators (it is unusual to have more than 8 elevators in a single group).  Please contact Technical Support if you need to analyse a group of more than 12 elevators.


Type

The elevator type could be “single deck”, “double deck” or “2 cars per shaft”.  In the general release version of Elevate this input is fixed to single or double deck depending on the analysis type and dispatcher algorithm selected in Analysis Data.  Elevate can be used to develop custom dispatcher algorithms which can be used for more than one lift type, which is why this option is included.  If the custom algorithm can manage more than one type of elevator, this option becomes active.


Capacity

The rated (contract) load, in kilograms, of each elevator car.  This can be Specified to be an exact number, or you can Select over a range.  A list of standard capacities is used for the Select option.  To modify this list, click on the button marked list.

For double deck elevators, the capacity entered here is the capacity of each deck.  For example, 1000 kg would indicate that each of the two cars has a 1000 kg capacity.


Car Area

The floor area of each car measured in m².   For double deck elevators, the value entered here is the floor area of each deck. 


Door Times

The door pre-opening, opening and closing times.  These can be selected Automatically, or Specified to be exact numbers.

Door pre-open is the improvement in door opening time achieved by overlapping the levelling operation with the first part of the opening of the doors, in seconds.

Door open is the time, in seconds, from the instant of the elevator car being level at a floor to when the doors are fully open.  Elevate assumes passenger transfer begins at the end of the door open time.  If, like some designers, you want to assume that passenger transfer begins before the doors are fully open, you can take the door open time to be from the instant of the elevator car being level at a floor to when the doors are (say) 800 mm open.

Door close is the time, in seconds, from the instant the car doors start to close, to the time when they are locked closed.

If the Auto option is used, Elevate uses the Capacity to decide door width, from which door times are selected as follows.  The open and close times chosen are typical of high speed centre-opening doors.

 

 Table 8.1  Automatic door selection for Metric units analysis

Capacity
(kg)

Door Width
(mm)

Door Pre-Open
Time (s)

Door Open
Time (s)

Door Close
Time (s)

630 800 0.0 1.5 2.0
800 800 0.0 1.5 2.0
1000 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9
1250 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9
1600 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9
1800 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9
2000 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9
2500 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9
2700 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9
3000 1100 0.0 1.8 2.9

 

Table 8.2  Automatic selection for U.S. units analysis

Capacity
(1b) 
Door Width
(in) 
Door Pre-Open
Times (s) 
Door Open
Time (s) 
Door Close
Time (s) 
1500 36 0.0 1.5 2.1
2000 36 0.0 1.5 2.1
2500 48 0.0 1.9 2.9
3000 48 0.0 1.9 2.9
3500 48 0.0 1.9 2.9
4000 48 0.0 1.9 2.9
4500 48 0.0 1.9 2.9
5000 48 0.0 1.9 2.9
5500 48 0.0 1.9 2.9
6000 48 0.0 1.9 2.9

Door Dwell Times

Elevate uses two dwell times:

Door Dwell 1 is the time, in seconds, that the doors will wait until closing if the passenger detection beam across the door entrance is not broken.

Door Dwell 2 is the time, in seconds, that the doors will wait until closing after the broken passenger detection beams are cleared.

Door Dwell 1 is automatically set to 3 seconds, and Door Dwell 2 to 2 seconds when you are using Standard mode.  To use alternative values, you must use Advanced mode.

The inputs Home Door Dwell 1 and Home Door Dwell 2 allow you to set a different door dwell times for the Home floor.

Speed, Acceleration and Jerk

Elevate uses a speed reference generator to calculate flight times between floors, and to track the exact position of elevators during a simulation.



Figure 7   Example speed profiles

You can control this speed profile completely by entering your values for:

Rated (contract) speed, in m/s.  This can be Specified to be an exact number, or Selected over a range.  A list of standard speeds is used for the Select option.  To modify this list, click on the button marked list.

Acceleration in m/s².  This can be selected Automatically or Specified as an exact value.  If the Auto option is used, Elevate uses the table below to select an acceleration appropriate to the elevator speed.

Jerk in m/s3.  This can be selected Automatically or Specified as an exact value.  If the Auto option is used, Elevate uses the table below to select a jerk appropriate to the elevator speed.

 

Table 8.3   Automatic acceleration and jerk selection for Metric units analysis

Speed  
(m/s) 
Acceleration 
(m/s2)
Jerk
(m/s3
0.30 0.4  0.8
0.63  0.4  0.8 
1.00  0.4  0.8 
1.60  0.7  1.4 
2.50  0.8  1.6 
3.15  1.0  1.6 
5.00  1.2  1.6 
6.00  1.5  1.6 
7.00  1.5  1.6 
8.00  1.5  1.6 

 

Table 8.4   Automatic acceleration and jerk selection for U.S. units analysis 

Speed
ft/min) 
Acceleration
(ft/s2
 Jerk
(ft/s3
150  1.31  2.62 
200  1.31  2.62 
300  1.31  2.62 
400  2.30  4.59 
500  2.62  5.25 
700  3.28  5.25 
1000  3.94  5.25 
1200  4.92  5.25 
1400  4.92  5.25 
1600  4.92  5.25 



Start Delay

The Start Delay is measured from the time when the elevator doors are fully closed until the elevator actually starts moving.  Start up delay may include time to pre-torque the motor, close the door locks, lift the break, etc.


Levelling Delay

The Levelling Delay is the additional delay to each trip if the elevator does not follow the ideal profile as it slows down to stop at a floor.  Elevators which have a levelling operation rather than travelling directly into the floor can have a significant Levelling Delay.  Sometime the Levelling Delay is compensated for by Door Pre-Opening.


Home Floor

The default floor to which the elevator returns when allocated a parking call (e.g. in up peak mode), and its starting point at the beginning of a simulation or a round trip time calculation.  For example, if you had an office building with a basement and 2 car parking floors below ground, you could set the Home Floor to be ground.

If the Analysis type is Up peak or Enhanced up peak, the Home Floor is fixed at the lowest floor in the building as this is an assumption required by the calculation.


Destination Call Stations

This input is for dispatcher algorithms which can operate installations with a mix of destination input and conventional up and down landing call buttons.  It will only be active if the selected Dispatcher has this functionality.  If available, the select button will open a dialog box allowing selection of which floors are to have Destination Call Stations.


Drive

This input is only applicable if the Analysis type is Simulation.  The Energy Model must be turned on in Analysis Data.

Select the drive type for analysis.  The available options are: Hydraulic, MRL (Machine Room Less), Modern Drive Regenerative, Modern Drive Non Regenerative, and DC with Motor Generator Set.  According to the drive selection Elevate makes assumptions about the energy consumption of the elevators at different loads in the up and down direction.  It then calculates the energy used for each trip and sums these results.

The assumptions made about the energy consumption of the elevators can be examined by switching to the Advanced mode and accepting the invitation to fill the tables based on Standard mode inputs.  Assumptions are based on actual measurements.  However because of the number of different configurations that Elevate can model, values for each individual configuration have to be estimated.  Elevate does not attempt to prevent impractical selections (e.g. it will not prevent you from analysing a high speed hydraulic elevator).  The results should be used for general guidance only.  For improved results, use actual measurements and apply them in Advanced mode.

ADVANCED MODE


Figure 8   Elevator Data dialog, Advanced Mode

Advanced mode can only be used when the Analysis type is Simulation.  In Advanced mode, data is entered in a table.  Building Data this table operates like a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet; you can use formulae, speed fills, drag and drop, etc. to help with data entry.

When you change from Standard to Advanced mode the data Elevate gives you the option of filling the Advanced mode tables based on the data you have entered in Standard mode.

Caution!  In Advanced mode, Elevate allows you to have elevators in the same group with different sizes, speeds, etc. (which is unusual, but an occasional requirement).  Some manufacturers’ control systems cannot cope with this level of complexity, so check with your suppliers before specifying this type of system.

The following additional inputs are available in Advanced mode.

Max door re-openings

The Max door re-openings parameter mimics some elevator controllers, which limit the number of times doors will re-open in response to passengers arriving and pressing a hall call button while the elevator doors are closing.  Some dispatchers may override these settings.  Unless you specifically want to research the impact of the door re-openings, we suggest you leave this parameter at its default value, “unlimited”

Shutdown and restart time

These options assist in modelling installations where an elevator becomes unavailable if it remains idle for a specified Shutdown time.   If the dispatcher allocates a call to an elevator which has shutdown, it will not respond until the restart time has expired.  This mimics the operation of older installations with motor generator sets.  It can also be used to model the energy savings associated with modern controllers which have a low energy, standby mode.

To disable the feature, set both shutdown time and restart time to 0.

Service

This input is primarily for use when Elevate is being used to monitor actual elevator installations rather than simulations.  Elevate may be used to report when cars go in and out of service.

Some dispatching algorithms in Elevate will recognise this input so that designs can be tested, for example, with a car out of service.

Floors Served

Advanced mode also allows you to define a group of elevators where not all elevators serve all floors.  For example, in a building there may be a group of four elevators, but only one serves the basement.  Select the Floors Served tab if this option is required.  This feature should not be used to model express zones, which are defined in Building Data.  This is because, unless using destination control, passengers will by default take the next car in the group to depart travelling in their direction.  So, low rise passengers will get into the high rise lifts, and vice-versa.

To indicate that the elevator serves the floor with a front entrance, enter f.  For a rear entrance, enter r.  If the elevator has both front and rear entrances on the same floor, enter, fr.

Not all dispatching algorithms in Elevate can manage rear entrances.

For passengers to use the rear entrances, the appropriate inputs need to be set in Passenger Data, Advanced mode.

Caution!  If not all the elevators serve all the floors, then a person may press a hall call button, and have their call answered by an elevator which does not serve their destination.  As a default, Elevate assumes that the person will get into the car, travel to the nearest floor to their destination, and then walk the rest of the way.  Generally a better solution is to use destination control; as the passenger registers their call at the landing, the system knows to send a car that serves the destination.

Energy Model

These inputs are only available when the Energy Model has been turned on in Analysis Data.  For each car the power consumed during a journey can be defined for different loads (0%, 25%, 75%, 100%), in both up and down directions.

The kW Drive on input is the energy consumed when the car is idle.  Some systems have a standby mode which takes less power; this can be modelled by specifying a different kW Drive off value.  Elevate models the system going into and out of the standby mode using the shutdown time and restart time inputs.


Training

  • 18 September 2014

    Elevate Standard Training Course, London, UK   

  • 19 September 2014

    Elevate Advanced Training Course, London, UK 

  • 21 October 2014

    Elevate Standard Training Course, New York, USA

  • 22 October 2014

    Elevate Advanced Training Course, New York, USA

  • 24 February 2015

    Elevate Standard Training Course, Dubai, UAE  

  • 25 February 2015

    Elevate Advanced Training Course, Dubai, UAE   

  • 19 March 2015

    Elevate Standard Training Course, London, UK     

  • 20 March 2015

    Elevate Advanced Training Course, London, UK   

  • 10 September 2015

    Elevate Standard Training Course, London, UK

  • 11 September 2015

    Elevate Advanced Training Course, London, UK  

  • 26 November 2015

    Elevate Standard Training Course, Hong Kong, China

  • 27 November 2015

    Elevate Advanced Training Course, Hong Kong, China 

  • 30 November 2015

    Elevate Standard Training Course, Sydney, Australia 

  • 1 December 2015

    Elevate Advanced Training Course, Sydney, Australia